Gwanggaeto Stele 광개토왕릉비

Gwanggaeto Stele_edited-1The opening of every episode of the drama King Gwanggaeto centered on a massive upright boulder-like object.  The credits would appear on smaller broken bits of this huge rock. This rock structure plays such a central role in the opening introduction, but what is it? What does it mean?

This rock formation is called “The Gwanggaeto Stele” 광개토왕릉비 also known as HoTae Wang Bi 호태왕비.  Gwanggaeto OpenerOK I will admit, I had no idea what a “stele” even was, so I’ll start with that. A “stele” is an upright stone slab or pillar bearing an inscription or design and serving as a monument, marker, or the like (thank you Dictionary.com). Putting two and two together, the Gwanggaeto Stele is a monument dedicated to King Gwanggaeto the Great 광개토대왕.

The stele was erected by Gwanggaeto’s son, King Jangsu 장수왕 in 414 AD. The reasons he did this was three-fold:

  1. Honor his father
  2. Commemorate King Gwanggaeto’s military triumphs and expansion of Goguryeo
  3. Serve as a reminder to the rest of the world that it was his intent to continue in his father’s footsteps by continuing the expansion of Goguryeo.

GwangGaeToSTELE

The stele is made from granite and stands at 7 meters (nearly 23 feet) with writing on all four sides. The writing gives an account of Gwanggaeto’s reign – it begins with the history of Goguryeo and then goes on to highlight Gwanggaeto’s accomplishments. The stele was accidentally rediscovered under a mound of dirt in 1875 in the present day city оf Ji’an 集安市 in the Jilan Provence. Ji’an sits along the Yalu River and wаs the capital оf Goguryeo when the stele was built.

From a historical perspective, it is the oldest writing we have from Goguryeo and it provides insights into the founding of Goguryeo; it is considered the primary “go-to” reference for the history of Goguryeo.

Here's a scene from the drama "Dae Jo Young"

Here’s a scene from the drama “Dae Jo Young”

Because the stele is considered as a primary reference for Goguryeo, there are doubts that Hae MoSu was actually the father of Jumong. As a matter of fact, if you go to the English version of Wkipedia, it states Hae MoSu as the father of Jumong; however in the Korean version, it says father is: “Unknown.” (BTW – this discrepancy can be another article in itself so I’ll just leave it here.)

광개토왕릉비As you can see in the picture below, there are a lot of blank spaces. Improper cleaning methods and the use of lime back when it was excavated, led to some of the inscriptions to become worn down.  They were able to make a copy by covering each side with paper and rubbing ink on the paper. The first rubbed copy was made by a Japanese scholar in 1881.  The only original rubbed copies are in Japan and China. Korea has never had an original copy of the rubbings and the stele itself is in what is now China. Therefore, Korea never had full access to the content.

 

Full Translation

The following is a translation of all four side of the Gwanggaeto Stele from the Tokyo National Museum, where one of the original rubbings resides. Before reading the translation, its important to keep in mind that over the years a lot of the gaps have become mysteriously filled. The Japanese had a habit of taking liberties when it came to Korean history in order to suit its own agenda, so there are some parts of this which need to be taken with a grain of salt.  The lines where some of the more questionable items have been added are in purple font. Another thing to point out is that in the 400’s, the state of Wa, now Japan wasn’t even a major player and were still viewed as barbarians.  Yet they somehow appear throughout this stele a dozen times. Not even the Jin dynasty was mentioned, but yet the Wa were – a lot. Just sayin.

광개토대왕능비탁본

All four sides of the original ink rubbing. The text was written in ancient Chinese and had a total of 1800 characters.

 

 

 

 

 

Reference: http://teikoku-denmo.jp/en/history/kohtaioh-hi_hibun.html


The following are some explanatory notes to make reading the translated version more understandable.

Original inscription in archaic Chinese

  • 字* = variant or defective characters which are most likely identified by instances.
  • 字^ = partly missing characters.
  • [字] = variant, unclear or possibly misused characters that other characters are also suggested by some scholars. On this webpage, these characters are mostly based on a rubbing copy owned by the Institute for Research in Humanities of Kyoto University and partly on Sakawa’s copy owned by the Tokyo National Museum.
  • [(字)] = characters that do not appear on these rubbing copies but suggested by several scholars based on examinations. On this webpage, these characters are chosen that coincide among several scholars, not just one or two.
  • □ = eroded and completely unreadable characters.
  • ■ = areas which the stele itself is crumbled.

English translation

  1. &  2.  All readable and clearly identified parts are written in a plain font.
  2. Some parts that have a few different decodings and interpretations are put [in brackets].
  3. Some parts that don’t appear on rubbing copies are indicated in [Italic in brackets].
  4. Disappeared characters are indicated as [xxx] or [. . .].
  5. Crumbled areas are indicates as [: : : : :].

**************************************************************************************************************

Side 1

惟昔、始祖・鄒牟王之創基也。出自北夫餘。天帝之子、母河伯女郎。剖卵降[出]、生[子]有聖[徳^]□□□□。□命駕、巡[車]南下、路由夫餘・奄利大水。王臨津言曰『我是皇天之子、母河伯女郎、鄒牟王。爲我連葭浮龜!』應聲即爲連葭浮龜、然後造渡。於沸流谷。忽本西、城山上而建都焉。

Long time ago, the first king Chumo (鄒牟王) established the country. He was born in North Buyeo (北夫餘). His father is the Emperor of the Heavens and mother’s name is Habaek (河伯女郎). He cracked the eggshell and [stepped down to this world]. He was innately the monarch [of virtue who]…  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    (He) went [a round in the country riding on a carriage], through Buyeo (夫餘) and Eomri Daesu River (奄利大水), to the south. At a bank of the Bullyu Cave (沸流谷), he said, “I am the King Chumo. My father is the Emperor of the Heavens and mother is Habaek. Turtles, float and form a line for me!” In the answer to his voice, innumerable turtles floated in a row to let him cross the river. He built the capital on the Seongsan Mountain (城山) in the west of Holbon (忽本).

[永]樂世位[因]遣黄龍來下迎王。 王於忽本東岡、[黄]龍[頁]昇天。顧命世子儒留王、以道興治。大朱留王紹承基業。

[Since] the country seemed [stable and tranquil for a long time], a messenger (of the God), a golden dragon came down to invite him to the Heavens. On a hill in the east of Holbon, the king ascended to the heaven [on] the [golden] dragon’s [back of the neck]. According to Chumo’s will, King Yuryu (儒留王) ruled the country thereafter, and then King Daejuryu (大朱留王) succeeded.

[遝]至十七世孫・國岡上廣開土境平安好太王。二九登祚、號爲永樂太王。恩澤[洽^]于皇天、威武振被四海。掃除[(不)]□庶寧其業。國富民殷、五穀豐熟、昊天不弔。

The 17th King is the Gukgangsang Gwanggaeto Gyeongpyeongan Hotae Wang (國岡上廣開土境平安好太王). He ascended the throne at age of 18 and his throne title is the “King Yeongrak of the Great” (永樂太王). His merciful heart [was like] the Emperor of the Heavens, and his dignity and bravery swayed the four oceans. He swept away [all the anxieties] and securely ruled the country. The nation was wealthy, people were prosperous, the harvest was abundant, and the sky was clear without calamities.

NB: Gukgangsang Gwanggaeto Gyeongpyeongan Hotae Wang is his full posthumous name that means “The great king on the capital hill, great expander of the territory in tranquil borders.” The commonly known name,Gwanggaeto means the “Great expander of the territory.” His throne name Youngrak means the “Eternal peace.”

卅有九、[晏]駕棄國。以甲寅年九月廿九日乙酉遷就山陵、於[是]立碑、銘記勲績、以[永]後世焉。其[(詞)]曰:

He [abdicated the throne] at age of 39 [by his death]. As of Eul’yu day (乙酉) September 29, Gap’in year (甲寅; CE 411), this stone monument is set up for his mountain tomb with inscription of his achievements to pass it [eternally] down to posterity:

NB:
Eul’yu day (乙酉): Yin Wood Chicken; Sexagemary day 22.
Gap’in year (甲寅): Yang Wood Tiger; Sexagenary year (干支) 51 ; CE 411.

永樂五年、歳在乙未:
王以碑麗不[息]□、[又]躬率往討。叵富山・[沓]山、至鹽水上、破其[兵]部絡六七百。當牛馬[羣]羊不可稱數。於是旋駕、因過[咢]平道・東來[候^城]・力城・北豐・[五備海]、遊觀土境、田[獵]而還。

Year of Youngrak 5 (永樂; CE 395), Eulmi (乙未):
Since Paryeo tribe (碑麗) did not [stop xxx-ing], the King led troops to subjugate them [again]. Passing through Bu (富山) and [Dap] (沓山) mountains, the King’s troops reached by the Yeomsu River (鹽水) and defeated Paryeo’s [military] fort with troops of 600-700 strong. There were countless cows, horses and sheep. On his return trip, the King inspected through the states passing through [Gok]pyeong-do (咢平道), Dongrae[hu Castle] (東來候城), Ryeok Castle (力城), Bukping (北豐) and [Obihae] (五備海), and did a hunting before returning in triumph.

NB:
Youngrak is Goguryeo’s era of CE 391-413; Youngrak 5 is CE 395.
Eulmi year ((乙未): Yin Wood Sheep; Sexagenary year 32; CE 395.
Paryeo tribe (碑麗) is believed to be a Khitan tribe.

百殘新羅、舊是屬民、由來朝貢。而倭以*辛卯年、來渡海破百殘、[(更)]□新^羅、以爲臣民。

Since Baekjan (百殘) and Silla (新羅) are originally subservient states (of Goguryeo), they paid tributes (to Goguryeo). And since the Sinmyo year (辛卯年; CE 391), the Wa (倭; Japan) came across the sea, defeated Baekjan, [(then xxx-ed Sil]la and made them subjects. 

NB:
Baekjan (百殘): a derogative name of Baekje (百濟) by Goguryeo.
Sinmyo year (辛卯年): Yin Metal Rabbit; Sexagenary year 28; CE 391.

六年丙申、王躬率[水]軍、討[科]殘國。軍□□[首]攻取:壹八城・臼模盧城・[各]模盧城・幹弖利[(城)]・□□城・閣弥城・牟盧[(城)]・弥沙城・[(古)舎]蔦城・阿旦城・古利城、□利城・雜[珍]城・奥利城・勾牟城・古[模]耶羅城・[莫(鄒城)]・□□[城]・[分]而耶*羅[(城)]・[瑑]城・[(於利城)]・[(農賣城)]・豆奴城・沸[(八比)]

In Yeongrak 6, Hyeongsin year (丙申; CE 396), the King led [navy] troops to [punish] Baekjan. The troops conquered [(Baekjae’s) provincial] castles of Ilpal (壹八城), Gumono (臼模盧城), [Gak]mono (各模盧城), Gandaeri (幹弖利城), [xxx], Gakmi (閣彌城), Mono (牟盧城), Misa (彌沙城), [Gosa]yeon (古舎蔦城), Adan (阿旦城), Gori (古利城), [xx]-ri (□利城), Jap[jin] (雜珍城), Ori (奥利城), Homo (勾牟城), Go[mo]yara (古模耶羅城), [Makchu] (莫鄒城), [xxx], [Bu]niyara (分而耶羅城), [Yeon] (瑑城), [Eori] (於利城), [Nongmae] (農賣城), Duno (豆奴城), Bul[palbi]-

NB: Hyeongsin year (丙申): Yang Fire Monkey; Sexagenary year 33; CE 396.

Side 2

城・弥鄒城・也利城・[大]山韓城・掃加城・敦抜[城]、□□□[(城)]・[嬰賣]城・[散(那)]城・[(那)婁]城・細城・牟婁城・于婁城・蘇灰城・燕婁城・[析]支利城・巖門[至]城・林城・□□[(城)]・□□[(城)]・□[利]城・就鄒城・□拔城・古牟婁城・閏奴城・貫^奴城・彡城・[(普拔城)]・[(宗古)]羅城・仇天城、□□□□、[(逼)]其國城。

-ri (沸八比利城), Michu (彌鄒城), Yari (也利城), [Dae]sanhan (大山韓城), Soga (掃加城), Donbal (敦抜城), [xxx], [Rumai] (婁賣城), [San’na] (散那城), [Naru] (那婁城), Se (細城), Moru (牟婁城), Uru (于婁城), Sohoe (蘇灰城), Yeonru (燕婁城), [Seo]jiri (析支利城), Am-mun[ji] (巖門至城), Lim (林城), [xxx], [xxx], [xx-ri] (□利城), Chwichu (就鄒城), [xx]bal (□拔城), Gomoru (古牟婁城), Yun’no (閏奴城), Gwan’no (貫奴城), Pungyang (豐穰城), [Bobal] (普拔城), [Jon’go]ra (宗古羅城), Gucheon (仇天城), [xxx].

賊不服[氣]敢出[百]戰。王威赫怒、渡阿利水、遣刺迫城。[横(攻侵穴、就)]便[圍]城。[而]殘[王]困逼、獻[出]男女生[口]一千人、細布千匝、[歸]王自誓、從令以後、永爲奴客。太王恩赦[先]迷之愆、録其「後順之誠」。於是[(得)]五十八城、村七百、將殘[王]吊[并]大臣十人、旋師還都。

The rebels (Baekje) still disobeyed and defied to have a [total] war. It made the king enraged. He led troops crossing the Arisu moat (阿利水) and closed in on the castle. They [made an attack from the flank, destroyed castle walls], and quickly [besieged] the castle. [Now] (Baek)jan [king] was driven into a corner and offered 1,000 people [as captives] and 1,000 pil (匹) of fabrics, then himself swore to be obedient to become a subject (of Goguryeo) forever. The King Gwanggaetto granted amnesty to the (Baekjae King’s) frenzied blunders in the past and wrote down the (Beakje King’s) oath as the “Faith of submission” (後順之誠). Accordingly, the Great King [acquired] 58 castles, 700 village towns and returned to the capital in triumph with (Baek)jan [king’s] younger brother and 10 nobles (as hostages).

NB: Pil (匹): 1 pil is about 20m/65ft

八年戊戌:
教遣偏師、觀帛愼土谷。因便抄得莫新羅城、加太羅谷男女三百餘人、自此以*來朝貢論事。

Youngrak 8, Musul year (戊戌; CE 398):
King sent a troop to scout a tribe of Sushen (肅慎). It resulted to have a tiny profit of capturing the Maksilla Castle (莫新羅城) and seizing the 300 Taera-gok Cave (太羅谷) people. Since then, they have sent tribute (to Goguryeo).

NB: Musul year (戊戌): Yang Earth Dog; Sexagenary year 35; CE 398.

九年己亥:
百殘違誓與倭和通。王巡下平穰。而新羅遣使白王云『倭人滿其國境、潰破城池。以奴客爲 民、歸王請命』太王恩[後稱]其忠[(誠)]。[(時)]遣使、還告以[(密)計^]。

Youngrak 9, Gihae year (己亥; CE 399):
Baekjan broke the pervious promise and allied with Wa. The King advanced to Pyongyang (平穰). There he saw Silla’s messengers telling him, “There were full of the Wa troops around the border and the castle’s moat was filled in. Since we are servants of Your Majesty, we pledge our allegiance to you and cordially ask your help.” The King mercifully [praised] their allegiance and let the messengers return (to Silla) [with his secret] message [of a stratagem].

NB: Gihae year (己亥): Yin Earth Pig; Sexagenary year 36; CE 399.

十年庚子:
教遣歩騎五萬、[住]救新羅、從男居城、至新羅城、倭[滿]其中。官[兵]方至、倭賊退。■■■■□□□□、[來]背急追、至任那加羅。從拔城、城即歸服。安羅人戍兵[拔]新羅[城]、[盡]城倭[滿]。倭潰城、大■■■■■■■■■■■■■■、[(城内)十]九盡、[拒隋^尖]、安羅人戍兵、[(捕羅城)]、□□其[(村殊)]□□□□□

Youngrak 10, Gyeongja year (庚子; CE 400):
The King sent 50,000 troops to save Silla. From the Namgeo Castle (男居城) to the Silla Castle (新羅城; Silla capital), these castles were [full up with] the Wa troops. When Goguryeo [soldiers] arrived, the Wa troops retreated.   : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   …(the Goguryeo troops) [hurried] to chase after (the Wa troops) to Imna Gara (任那加羅). When they assaulted the castle, the castle yielded immediately. (Meanwhile), the Alla defense soldiers (安羅人戍兵) [attacked] the Silla [Castle being full up with] the Wa troops. The Wa annihilated the castle and greatly…   : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :  …[although the 90 percent in the castle] were killed, [they rejected to surrender and these Alla soldiers were seized in the (Sil)la Castle]…  . . . . . . . .  …the [castle town was especially]…  . . . . . . . . . . . .

  • The edge of the stele is crambled and many characters are completeley unreadable.
    NB: Gyeongja year (庚子): Yang Metal Rat; Sexagenary year 37; CE400.

Side 3

[(信)]□□[(旦)]□[倭]□[(稚)]□□□□□□□□[興]□□□□□□□□□辭□□[(殘倭)]□□□□□□□□□潰、[(亦)以隨(城)]安羅人戍兵。

. . .  …[a correspondence of]…  . . . . . .  …[at the dawn]…  . .  …[the Wa soldiers]…  . .  …[small]…  . . . . . . . . . . .  …[occurred]… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  …declined…  . . . . .  …[the (Baek)jan and the Wa]…  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  …annihilated, the Alla soldiers [of the Castle were also]…

昔、新羅[(寐)]錦、未有身來[論(事。□國岡上廣)]開土境好太[王]□□[(新羅、寐錦□家)]僕勾、[(請千)]□□朝貢。

Until that time, [the Prince] of Silla never appeared (to Goguryeo) by himself to [discuss on matters. The King Gukgangsang Gwang]gaeto Gyeongpyeongan Hotae [xxx-ed Silla so that the Prince] Bokho (僕勾) [of the xxxx house petitioned] to pay [a thousand of xxxx for] tribute (to Goguryeo).

十四年甲辰:
而倭不軌、侵入帶方界。[(和通殘兵至)]石城。□連船□□□。[(王躬)率(往討從)]平穰、□□□[(鋒)]相遇。王幢要截盪刺、倭寇潰敗、斬殺無數。

Youngrak 14, Gapjin year (甲辰; CE 404):
The Wa unexpectedly invaded the southern border at Daifang (帶方). [The Wa allying with the (Baek)jan soldiers reached] the Seok Castle (石城). Their [xxx] fleet…  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    [The King himself led troops from] Pyongyang (平穰) [to defeat them].   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  …[colliding] each other. The (Goguryeo) swordsmen with the King’s flag slashed at the enemies and the Wa pirate (倭寇) collapsed with enormous casualties.

NB: Gapjin year (甲辰): Yang Wood Dragon; Sexagenary year 41; CE 404.

十七年丁未:
教遣歩騎五萬、□□□□。□□□□、[(王)師(四方)]合戦、斬殺湯盡。所[稚]鎧鉀一萬餘、領軍資器械不可[歸]數。還破沙溝城・婁城・[還(住城)]・□[(城)]・□□□・□[(那)]□城。

Youngrak 17, Jeongmi year (丁未; CE 407):
The King sent 50,000 troops to (defeat ???).   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [the King’s army] battled [all around], and entirely killed the troops. The triumphant force [acquired] over 10,000 armors and enormous amount of military equipment with recapturing six castles of Sagu (沙溝城), Ru (婁城), [Hwanju] (還住城), [xxx], [xxx], [xxnaxx] (□那□城).

NB: Jeongmi year (丁未): Yin Fire Sheep; Sexagenary year 44; CE 407.

廿年庚戌:
東夫餘舊是鄒牟王屬民中叛不貢。王躬率往討。軍到餘城、而餘城國[駭、(皆歸)]□□□□那。□□王恩晉[覆]於是旋還。又其慕化隨官來者:味仇婁鴨盧・卑斯麻鴨盧・[端立]婁鴨盧・粛斯舎[(鴨盧)]・□□[鴨]盧。凡所攻破城六十四、村一千四百。

Youngrak 20, Gyeongsul year (庚戌; CE 410):
Among subservient states since the time of the King Chumo (鄒牟王), only East Buyeo (東夫餘) was disobedient and did not pay tribute (to Goguryeo). The King led troops to subjugate them. When the troops arrived at the Yeo Castle (餘城), they [were surprised and became obedient, and]…  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  …, the King mercifully decided to refrain from [overthrowing them] and he returned home. There were also (five) nobles (鴨盧), Miguru (味仇婁), Bisama (卑斯麻), [Danrip]ru (端立婁), Suksasa (粛斯舎) and [xxx] following after the King (to Goguryeo) as they submitted to the King’s august virtue. The number of conquered castles are 64 and villages are 1,400.

NB:
Gyeongsul year (庚戌): Yang Metal Dog; Sexagenary year 47; CE 410.
Yeo Castle (餘城): the garrison capital of East Buyeo.

守墓人烟戸:
賣勾余・民:國烟二・看烟三、東海賈:國烟三・看烟五、敦城:[(民)]四家盡爲看烟、干城:一家爲看烟、碑利城:二家爲國烟、平穰城・民:國烟一・看烟十、[呰]連:二家爲看烟、[俳]婁・人:國烟一・看烟卌[二]、[溪]谷:二家爲看烟、[溪]城:二家爲看烟、安[夫]連:廿二家爲看烟、[改]谷:三家爲看烟、新城:三家爲看烟、南蘇城:一家爲國烟。

List of tomb keeper families:

Maihoyeo (賣勾余) [subjects] (民): 2 State Tomb Keepers & 3 Regular Tomb Keepers; Donhaemai (東海賈): 3 state keepers & 5 regular keepers; Don Castle (敦城) subjects: 4 families serve for Regular; Gan Castle (干城): 1 family for Regular; Biri Castle (碑利城): 2 families for State Keepers; Pyongyang Castle (平穰城) subjects: 1 State & 10 Regular; [Ji]ryeon (呰連): 2 families for Regular; [Bae]ru (俳婁) people: 1 State & [42] Regular; [Gye]gok (溪谷): 2 families for Regular; [Gye] Castle (溪城): 2 families for Regular; An[bu]ryeon (安夫連): 22 families for Regular; [Gae]gok (改谷): 3 families for Regular; Sin Castle (新城): 3 families for Regular; Namso Castle (南蘇城): 1 family for State.

NB:
State tomb keeper, Gukyeon (國煙)
Capital tomb keeper, Doyeon (都煙)
Regular tomb keeper, Ganyeon (看煙)

新來韓穢:
沙水城:國烟一・看烟一、牟婁城:二家爲看烟、[豆]比鴨岑韓:五家爲看烟、[句]牟客頭:二家爲看烟、[求底]韓:一家爲看烟、舎蔦城・韓穢:國烟三・看烟廿一、古[模耶]羅城:一家爲看烟、[炅]古城:國烟一・看烟三、客賢韓:一家爲看烟、阿旦城・雜珍城:合十家爲看烟、巴奴城・韓:九家爲看烟、[臼]模廬城:四家爲看烟、各模盧城:二家爲看烟、牟水城:三家爲看烟、幹弖利城:國烟一・看烟三、[弥耶]城:[國烟六]、看烟

New tomb keepers of Han (韓) and Ye (穢)
Sasu Castle (沙水城): 1 State & 1 Regular; Churu Castle (牟婁城): 2 families for Regular; Dubiapgeum Han (豆比鴨岑韓): 5 families for Regular; Gumo Gaekdu (句牟客頭): 2 families for Regular; Gujeo Han (求底韓): 1 family for Regular; Sayeon Castle (舎蔦城) Han Yeon: 21 Regular; Gomoyara Castle (古模耶羅城): 1 family for Regular; Makgo Castle (炅古城): 1 State & 3 Regular; Gaekhyeon Han (客賢韓): 1 family for Regular; Adan Castle (阿旦城) & Japjin Castle (雜珍城): 10 families for Regular; Pano Castle (巴奴城) Han: 9 families for Regular; [Gu]mono Castle (臼模廬城): 4 families for Regular; Gakmono Castle (各模盧城): 2 families for Regular; Mono Castle (牟水城): 3 families for Regular; Gandaegri Castle (幹弖利城): 1 State & 3 Regular; [Miya] Castle (彌耶城): [6 Gukyeon], [xx] Regular

Side 4

□□、□□[(七、也利城)]:三^家爲看烟、豆奴城:國烟一・看烟二、奥利城:國烟二・看烟八、[須耶]城:國烟二・看烟五、百殘・南居韓:國烟一、看烟五、[大]山韓城:六家爲看烟、農賣城:國姻一、看烟[一]、閏奴城:國烟二・[都]烟廿二、古牟婁城:國烟二・看烟八、[瑑]城:國烟一・看烟八、味城:六家爲看烟、就咨城:五家爲看烟、彡城:廿四家爲看烟、散那城:一家爲國烟、那旦城:一家爲看烟、勾牟城:一家爲看烟、於利城:八家爲看烟、比利城:三家爲看烟、細城:[(三)]家爲看烟。

& [7 xxxx; Yari (也利城)]: 3 families for Regular; Duno (豆奴城): 1 State & 2 Regular; Ori (奥利城): 2 State & 8 Regular; [Suya] (須耶城): 2 State & 5 Regular; Baekjan Namgeo Han (百殘南居韓): 1 State & 5 Regular; [Dae]sanhan Castle (大山韓城): 6 families for Regular; Nongmae (農賣城): 1 State & [1] Regular; Yun’no (閏奴城): 2 State & 22 [Capital Tomb Keepers]; Gomoru (古牟婁城): 2 State & 8 Regular; [Yeon] (瑑城): 1 State & 8 Regular; Mi (味城): 6 families for Regular; [Chwija] (就咨城): 5 families for Regular; Pungyang (豐穰城): 24 families for Regular; San’na (散那城): 1 family for State; Nadan (那旦城): 1 family for Regular; Homo (勾牟城): 1 family for Regular; Eori (於利城): 8 families for Regular; Biri (比利城): 3 families for Regular; Se (細城): [3] families for Regular.

國岡上廣開土境好太王、存時教言、『祖王先王、但教取遠近舊民、守墓洒掃。吾慮舊民轉當贏劣若吾萬年之後。安守墓者、但取吾躬[率]所略來韓穢、令備洒掃!』 言教如此、是以如教令、取韓穢二百廿家。慮其不知法則、復取舊民一百十家。合新舊守墓[戸]、國烟卅、看烟三百、都合三百卅家。自上祖先王以來、墓上不安石碑、致使守墓人烟戸羌錯。[惟]國岡上廣開土境好太王、盡爲祖先王、墓上立碑銘其烟戸、不令羌*錯。又制^、守墓人、自今以後、不得更相轉賣。雖有富足之者、亦不得[檀]買。其有違令、賣者刑之、買人制令守墓之。

When the King Gwanggaeto of the Great was in life, he said, “The Grand-King and the Former King appointed the people within the original territory of Goguryeo to tomb keepers to guard and maintain tombs of ancestral kings. I am anxious that people would become lazy five thousand years later. For tomb keepers who retain tombs reposeful, collect people from Han (韓) and Ye (穢) that (subject states) myself [led troops] to subjugate. Order them to be prepared!”

This is his words so we hence regard it as his instruction. Accordingly, 220 families of the Han and the Ye have been appointed. By a consideration that these people are not familiar with the regulation (of Goguryeo), the 110 Goguryeo families have been also assigned. Altogether with Silla’s tomb keepers, there are total 330 families of 30 Gukyeon (國煙 State Tomb Keepers) and 300 Ganyeon (看煙 Regular Tomb Keepers).

Since there were no tombstones on ancestral kings’ tombs, it made tomb keepers confused. Gwanggaeto of the Great [is the king who] had tombstones built for ancestral kings in order not to make tomb keepers confused any longer. Moreover, (these tombstones have been set) to prevent tomb keepers to resell hereafter. Even the people who are wealthy enough are not able to purchase [arbitrarily]. Thus, unlawful sellers are subject to be punished, and buyers are obligated to become tomb keepers.

NB:
Han (韓): the south part of the Korean Peninsula, current South Korea.
Ye (穢): the northeast part of the Korean Peninsula including the eastern part of North Korea and the northeast part of South Korea.


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