King Gwangjong of Goryeo: Tyrant or Reformer?
Personal Name: Wong So 왕소(王昭)
Died: July 4, 975
As Seen On TV: The 4th King of the Goryeo Dynasty, you can see his story played out in the 2015 MBC drama, Shine Or Go Crazy and the 2016 SBS drama, Scarlet Heart: Ryeo
For those watching Moonlovers: Scarlet Heart Ryeo, let’s start by clarifying that Gwangjong did not kill all his brothers. But more about that later. Various interpretations exist regarding Gwangjong’s reign. He has been portrayed during most of Korean history as a bloody tyrant. However, some now see Gwangjong as a great reformer and attribute his reign for laying the foundation of Goryeo which lasted for 475 years. We will take a look at his reign and establish fact versus drama fiction.
Stability Through Establishing A Strong Central Government: Following the death of Goryeo’s first king, Taejo Wang Gun in 943, the young kingdom of Goryeo was left in a turbulent and shaky situation. The following two kings had short reigns and lacked the political strength to stabilize the young kingdom. In 949, Taejo’s 4th son, Wong So, now known as Gwongjong, became Goryeo’s 4th king. Gwongjong took many measures to stabilize the kingdom by strengthening royal authority and creating a strong central government. Among some of his measure was the creation of a large military loyal to him, and declaring himself “Emperor” 왕제. Declaring himself as an emperor was considered a super bold and audacious move because the only emperor was the Chinese emperor. The first seven of Gwangjong’s reign was considered peaceful and he was viewed to be a strong and wise king.
But Then History Turns Against Him…
In Gwangjong’s time, the aristocracy, which consisted of family clans and military generals, held massive of power and influence in the kingdom; many of whom were awarded Meritorious Service for having helped his father establish the new kingdom. Gwongjong upset the balance of power by strengthening royal authority and reducing their power. He enacted a series of major reforms which were viewed as unfavorable to the aristocracy – simply put, he really pissed them off!
Slave Reform Act 노비안검법: One of his most famous reforms was enacting the Slave Review Act in 956. Under this act, a new commission was set up to review the origins of slaves to ensure they were legally acquired. Those that were found to be illegally acquired were then emancipated. This was genius move because he was able to kill two birds with one stone. First, this decreased the number of slaves owned by powerful clans and military officers, thereby decreasing their power. Second, these newly emancipated slaves became tax payers, who fed into the royal coffers.
Establishment of Civil Service Exam 과거 제도: The other reform Gwangjong is credited for was the establishment of the National Civil Service Exam in 958. This was a national test which allowed government officials to be recruited based on merit and scholarly attainment rather than family or political connections. This had significant impact in Korean Confusion history. Some consider Gwongjong to be a key figure in the establishment of Korean Confucianism. Although the slave reform act ended after Gwangjong’s death, the civil service exam lasted for almost 950 more years until the Gabo Reform of 1894.
Did Gwangjong instigate a bloody purge against the nobility or was he merely suppressing rebellious forces who were against his reforms? So this is where history takes a turn. The mainstream version of history is that Gwangjong was a bloody tyrant, but based on additional evidence, the reality may be closer to the fact that he was merely squashing a rebellion.
Obviously, the powerful clans and military officers were not happy to lose their military strength, to lose their slaves, and to lose their status of Meritorious Service for the founding of Goryeo. Their discontent became too much to bare and they reacted by staging a rebellion. The rebellion failed miserably and as a result, in 960, there was a purge of all those involved in the failed rebellion attempt. As mentioned at the top of the article, Gwongjong did not kill all his brothers. The only brother that he killed was his half brother, the 9th Prince HyoEun 효은태자 (aka: Wang Wun 왕원 ). Other relatives who were purged in the rebellion included his nephews Prince HeungHwa 흥화궁군 (son of King Hyejong 혜종, the 2nd king) and Prince Gyeongchunwon 경춘원군 (son of King Jeongjong 정종, the 3rd king).
According to historical records, Gwangjong’s son, Wang Joo (the future King Gyungjong 경종) was caught up in treasonous accusations. Historical records documents that the young prince was spared from the purge since he was Gwongjong’s only surviving son. In actuality, it seems the accusations were baseless since he would have only been 5 years old at the time of the rebellion.
Did he really marry his half-sister? Yes he did. He also married his niece, the daughter of King Hyejong (the 2nd king) and the sister of one of the nephews he purged in the rebellion of 960. (That must have been pretty awkward!)
He was the first and only Goryeo king to marry such close relatives. It is unclear to this writer as to why he decided to marry such close relatives. Perhaps he was trying to revive ancient Silla’s Bone Rank System by creating a “pure blooded” royal family. Perhaps he was doing this as a measure to strengthen royal authority by not allowing any other clans to join the royal family as in-laws. (Comments on this topic is welcomed and encouraged!)
Why the Bad Rap? As the old saying goes, history is written by the winners. It can also be said that history is written by the survivors. Goryeo statesmen and historian, Choe Seungno 최승로 was an the advisor to six generation of kings beginning with Taejo. During the reign of Gwongjong’s grandson, King Seongjong 성종, Choe wrote an ancient equivalent of a “Tell-All” book documenting the past glories and failures of all the past kings he served. Choe especially slammed Gwangjong and placed blame on him for a variety of things. Choe’s account and his interpretation of Gwangjong’s actions is the version that has stuck in history.
In Conclusion: Gwongjong’s reign lasted for 26 years. Goryeo lasted for another 400 years. His reforms such as the Slave Reform Act and the National Civil Service Exam are still taught over 1000 years later. So what do you think, tyrant of reformer?
List of Dramas Featuring Gwongjong
- Taejo Wanggun 《태조 왕건》 KBS1, 2000
- The Dawn of the Empire 《제국의 아침》,KBS1, 2002
- Empress Chunchu 《천추태후》 KBS2, 2009
- Shine or Go Crazy 《빛나거나 미치거나》 MBC, 2015
- Scarlet Heart: Ryeo 《보보경심: 려》, SBS, 2016
Moon Lovers: Scarlet Heart Ryeo
Shine or Go Crazy